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OS Migration from AIX 5.3 to 6.1 using NIM AltDisk

Posted by LeO on September 26, 2012

Procedure to perform OS Migration using NIM
 
 1) If you have not performed the mksysb backup, immediately take mksysb in tape (or) in NIM server.
 Run the pre installation verification to see if you’re good to go.
Pre Installation verification script: /usr/lpp/bos/pre_migration
 
2) Break the mirror prior to pre_migration otherwise you will receive an error as below
 Your rootvg has mirrored logical volumes (copies greater than 1)
Recommendation: Break existing mirrors before migrating.
 
3) Temporarily enable rshd on the client LPAR
# chsubserver -a -v shell -p tcp6 -r inetd
# refresh –s inetd
# cd /
# rm .rhosts
# vi .rhosts
+
# chmod 600 .rhosts
 
 4) On NIM Server create an empty Volume Group to copy the NIM Clients root volume group, the volume group is used by the nimadm command for the migration. 
 5) On NIM Client check the rootvg
            Check that the rootvg is unmirrored and a disk free which is similar to the disk in the rootvg here we have 
 Note: I have started the installation thus its shows altinst_rootvg else it should be empty.
 
6) Check the SPOT & LPP_SOURCE for the existence of the alt_disk_install
 
7) If the bos.alt_disk_install.rte doesn’t exist in the SPOT then create the same, if it is been included in LPP_SOURCE add the same with the below command.
 # nim -o cust -a filesets=bos.alt_disk_install.rte -a lpp_source=lpp6104 spot6104
 
 8) Run the nimadm command for the OS migration using NIM
 # nimadm -j nimadmVG -c cstest-3 -s spot6104 -l lpp6104 -d "hdisk1" -Y
• –j flag specifies the VG on the master which will be used for the migration
• -c is the client name
• -s is the SPOT name
• -l is the lpp_source name
• -d is the hdisk name for the alternate root volume group (altinst_rootvg)
• -Y agrees to the software license agreements for software that will be installed during the migration.
 
 9) Wait for the migration to complete it takes around 30 – 45 mins depends upon the filesets installed in the client system.
 
 10) Once the 12 phases completed without any failure follow the below steps or else resolve the errors encountered.
 11) Verify the server
 # lspv | grep rootvg
# bootlist -m normal –o
# oslevel –s
 
 12) Reboot the server ‘shutdown –r now’
 
13) Disable the RSH login
 
# chsubserver -d -v shell -p tcp6 -r inetd
# refresh –s inetd
# cd /
# rm .rhosts
# ln -s /dev/null .rhosts
 
14) Verity if all the applications are ok, then remove the old root vg
 
# alt_rootvg_op -X old_rootvg
 
15) Perform the below
 
Extend the rootvg
 
# extendvg –f rootvg hdisk0
 
Mirror the rootvg with hdisk0
 
# mirrorvg rootvg hdisk0
 
Create the bosboot on both the rootvg disks
 
# bosboot -a -d /dev/hdisk0
# bosboot -a -d /dev/hdisk1
 
Create the bootlist on both the disks
 
# bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1
 
Verify the bootlist and it should look like below
 
# bootlist -m normal -o
hdisk0 blv=hd5
hdisk1 blv=hd5



Files to be backed up before upgrade
  1. 1.    /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab (If this file doesn’t exist then create one using the document)
  2. 2.     


Fixing upgrade issues

If the upgrade doesn’t shows the expected TL level or SP level you can do the below.

Check oslevel –s to check the SP level.

@ / $ oslevel -s
6100-06-04-1112
@ / $ instfix -i | grep ML
    All filesets for 6100-00_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 6100-01_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 6100-02_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 6100-03_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 6100-04_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 6100-05_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 6100-06_AIX_ML were found.
@ / $ instfix -i | grep SP
    All filesets for 61-06-081216_SP were not found.

If any of the SP or TL not found then do the below.

@ / $ oslevel -sl 61-06-081216

Now you have to fix the specific fileset which is a problem now.

Also you can run lppchk –v to check if all ok.


Issues faced
  1. 1.    SAN
SAN software has to be upgraded to the AIX 6.1 version of sdd software. 
Before Upgrade
cstest-3 @ /mnt/aix610608 # lslpp -l | grep -i sdd
  devices.sddpcm.53.rte      2.5.2.3  COMMITTED  IBM SDD PCM for AIX V53
  devices.sddpcm.53.rte      2.5.2.3  COMMITTED  IBM SDD PCM for AIX V53
 
After Upgrade
cstest-3 @ / # lslpp -l | grep -i sdd
  devices.sddpcm.61.rte      2.6.3.1  COMMITTED  IBM SDD PCM for AIX V61
  devices.sddpcm.61.rte      2.6.3.1  COMMITTED  IBM SDD PCM for AIX V61
 
  1. 2.    Kerberos
Kerberos application has to be upgraded for AIX 6.1
Before Upgrade
cstest-3 @ / # lslpp -l | grep -i krb
  krb5.client.rte            1.5.0.1  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
  krb5.client.samples        1.5.0.1  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
  krb5.doc.en_US.html        1.5.0.1  COMMITTED  Network Auth Service HTML
  krb5.doc.en_US.pdf         1.5.0.1  COMMITTED  Network Auth Service PDF
  krb5.lic                   1.5.0.1  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
  krb5.client.rte            1.5.0.1  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
 
After Upgrade
cstest-3 @ / # lslpp -l | grep -i krb
  krb5.client.rte            1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
  krb5.client.samples        1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
  krb5.doc.en_US.html        1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Auth Service HTML
  krb5.doc.en_US.pdf         1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Auth Service PDF
  krb5.lic                   1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
  krb5.client.rte            1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service

KRB5A config has to be updated as below to work in AIX 6.1
To fix Kerberos user login to work, add the below to /usr/lib/security/methods.cfg
KRB5A:
        program = /usr/lib/security/KRB5A
        program_64 = /usr/lib/security/KRB5A_64
        options = authonly,tgt_verify=no,kadmind=no,is_kadmind_compat=no
 
KRB5Afiles:
        options = db=BUILTIN,auth=KRB5A
 
 
  1. 3.    Samba
Samba software can be installed from the expansion CD from the csnim-1.
  1. 4.    XL C Compiler
XL C Compiler(VAC) is on version 8.0.0.0 which is compatable to run on AIX 6.1. But this version of XL C doesn’t contain the configuration file for AIX 6.1 thus it had to be manually created. If you don’t change the config file and check the XL C you should get the below error
@ /etc # /usr/vac/bin/xlc -qversion
/usr/vac/bin/xlc: 1501-273 A mismatch exists between the OS level and the configuration file. The configuration file /etc/vac.cfg is intended for AIX 5.3. Use vac.cfg.61 to correct the problem.
 
When you get this error you can know you don’t have the proper config, you can just copy the config from the csnim-1
@ /etc # cp -rp /mnt/vac.cfg.61 /etc/
@ /etc # ln -sf vac.cfg.61 vac.cfg
 
And now you will get the proper version output.
@ /etc # /usr/vac/bin/xlc -qversion
IBM XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition V8.0 for AIX
Version: 08.00.0000.0000
 
  1. 5.    OpenSSL
OpenSSL / OpenSSH is already updated to SSH:5.2.0.5300 and SSL:0.9.8.1300. If its not update to the given level.
cstest-3 @ / # lslpp -l | grep -i open
  devices.pci.c1110358.diag  6.1.0.0  COMMITTED  USB Open Host Controller
  lsof.base                  4.8.2.0  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files
  lsof.license               4.8.2.0  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files
  lsof.man.en_US             4.8.2.0  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files
  openssh.base.client     5.2.0.5300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Shell Commands
  openssh.base.server     5.2.0.5300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Shell Server
  openssh.license         5.2.0.5300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Shell License
  openssh.man.en_US       5.2.0.5300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Shell
  openssl.base            0.9.8.1300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket Layer
  openssl.man.en_US       0.9.8.1300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket Layer
  openssh.base.client     5.2.0.5300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Shell Commands
  openssh.base.server     5.2.0.5300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Shell Server
  openssl.base            0.9.8.1300  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket Layer
 
  1. 6.    NTP 
Here is the NTP configuration which has to be updated to the system, make sure the NTP config file /etc/ntp.conf is updated with the below given info.

broadcastclient
server ntp1.net prefer
server ntp2.net
restrict default ignore
restrict 169.42.0.0 nomodify
restrict 127.0.0.1
driftfile /etc/ntp.drift
tracefile /etc/ntp.trace
logfile /etc/ntp.log
 
Once updated the config, now stop/start xntpd.
 
stopsrc -s xntpd
ntpdate ntp1.eu.hedani.net
startsrc -s xntpd
 
check if the date/time is properly updated to the system.
  1. 7.    LSOF
Upgrade the LSOF from the expansion pack
cstest-3 @ / # lslpp -l | grep -i lsof
  lsof.base               6.1.0.4820  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files
  lsof.license            6.1.0.4820  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files
  lsof.man.en_US          6.1.0.4820  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files
  lsof.base               6.1.0.4820  COMMITTED  List Of Open Files  
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Posted in Basic, LPAR | Leave a Comment »

MediaWiki into AIX

Posted by LeO on September 14, 2010


MediaWiki into AIX

Knowledge base is an important thing for administrators, so if you don’t have a well developed knowledge base on your environment then you can use the mediawiki as your knowledge base.

Mediawiki is a internal Wikipedia which can be used to upload documents and search it whenever its required.

Installing Apache web server for AIX

1)     If you need to get the Apache source and your going to compile it then get it from http://httpd.apache.org/

2)     If you like to get the rpm and install the Apache as AIX Package get Apache from http://www.perzl.org/aix

Installing apache from open source

Download apache from http://httpd.apache.org Install the gcc 4.0 and the required libraries from http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/download.html

  1. Install the gcc rpm’s
  2. configure the apache using
./configure -C --enable-so --prefix /usr/freeware/apache
  1. do a make and make install.

Get the Apache install it, if you’re using the 2nd option make sure all the dependencies are installed properly.

Configuring Apache

Make sure you edit the httpd.conf for the document root and other things needed

Httpd.conf loacated in /opt/freeware/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Start the apache using the “apachectl start” command which is located in /opt/freeware/apache/bin/

Install the mysql

Installing

  1. Download mysql from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.0.html
  2. Create necessary user and group. Create a user called mysql with group mysql
  3. unzip the mysql to /usr/freeware/mysql
  4. Run the installation /usr/freeware/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db –user=mysql
  5. chown –R mysql .mysql /usr/freeware/mysql
  6. Start the mysql by /usr/freeware/mysql/bin/mysql -u mysql –p
  7. Check if mysql is working properly.

Install PHP

Prereqs

* PHP  tarball from http://www.php.net

* working Apache Installation

Building PHP

configure

In this example, /usr/freeware/apache is where Apache is installed, /usr/freeware/php is where I will install PHP, and I’m using gcc for the compiler.

$ CC=gcc ./configure --prefix=/usr/freeway/php \
--with-apxs2=/usr/freeware/apache/bin/apxs

make

$ make

make install

If make install fails.

$ cp -p .libs/libphp4.so /usr/freeware/apache/modules/

Add to load the php library in http config

Add this line to httpd.conf:

LoadModule php4_module modules/libphp4.so

then see if apachectl configtest still works.

Configure Apache for a simple PHP test

Add this line to httpd.conf:

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml

Create this simple PHP page as file phpinfo.php under your Apache htdocs directory:

<html>
<body <h1> PHP testing </h1>
<?PHP phpinfo() ?>
</body>
</html>

Load /phpinfo.php from your server

If you get a nicely formatted table describing PHP settings, PHP is working. If you get the PHP source code back to the browser then the Apache configuration to invoke PHP for *.php files isn’t working right.

Now you are ready to go, Install media wiki from here

http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Manual:Installing_MediaWiki

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments »

Using OpenSSH

Posted by LeO on September 10, 2010


OpenSSH

Let’s talk about OpenSSH and its usage.

We all know OpenSSH uses RSA/DSA user authentication so it’s highly secured authentication method. Also with this highly secured authentication it has several other uses. One of the very important things is password less authentication between server’s which is been used by most of the administrators while writing scripts.

OpenSSH:

OpenSSH is free software which uses default ssh authentication and above that uses an RSA/DSA authentication.

By using default ssh authentication we can have a secured connection to a remote server, where as telnet is a non secured connection. Default ssh authentication uses a encrypted DataStream thus hackers will not be able to capture the DataStream.

Also using the default ssh authentication we can do sftp which is a secured ftp program which again uses the encrypted data stream.

Also using the default ssh authentication we can do scp which is a secured copy program which copies the files from the local system to the remote system and uses a encrypted DataStream.

All the above functionalities of ssh needs an user authentication using a password. The one other functionality of OpenSSH is that it can use RSA/DSA based password less authentication.

RSA/DSA:

RSA and DSA authentication protocols are built up on a pair of specifically generated cryptographic keys. The data stream is encrypted and decrypted using these keys. We have an ssh-keygen program which can create RSA/DSA keys. The key pair is a public and a private key. These are special keys where as a public key is used to encrypt a message and the holder of the private key will be able to decrypt it. Using these key’s we could create password less authentication for users. It’s a simple and secured way of doing, yet we have to have a better understanding of these key’s as not to leave any security holes.

Creating OpenSSH password less authentication.

Default secured connection from one server to another is done by just ssh’ing to the remote server.

test-1 @ / # ssh leo@test-2

leo@test-2’s Password:

So you type in your password and you’re authenticated to the test-2 server.

Now for password less connection: (to authenticate from test-1 to test-2)

1. Create a RSA/DSA key in test-1

test-1 @ / # ssh-keygen

Generating public/private rsa key pair.

Enter file in which to save the key (/home/leo/.ssh/id_rsa): <press enter>

Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): <enter passwd or enter for empty pass>

Enter same passphrase again:

Your identification has been saved in /home/leo/.ssh/id_rsa.

Your public key has been saved in /home/leo/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.

The key fingerprint is:

37:7a:07:56:ed:6f:d3:56:97:5d:8a:8c:01:d9:3c:2e root@test-1

Now you have created a RSA public and private key pair.

For creating a DSA key just use ssh-keygen –t dsa. This is will create a DSA key. The RSA key uses level-1 ssh protocol and DSA uses level-2 ssh protocol for encrypting and decrypting DataStream.

2. Now copy the key to test-2

test-1 @ / # scp /leo/.ssh/id_rsa.pub leo@test-2:/home/leo/

leo@test-2’s Password:

now login to test-2

test-1 @ / # ssh test-2

leo@test-2’s Password:

test-2 @ /home/leo/ # cat /home/leo/id_rsa.pub > /home/leo/.ssh/authorized_keys

now exit the system.

3. Now login using ssh

test-1 @ / # ssh test-2

Enter passphrase for key ‘/home/leo/.ssh/id_rsa’:

So when you enter the passphrase, ssh allows you to login to the remote system test-2.

If you haven’t kept any passphrase while generating the key’s then ssh will not ask any passphrase. Thus using an empty password you are creating a password less connection between the servers.

Its worth to note that ssh automatically loaded the private key “/home/leo/.ssh/id_rsa” in the source system(test-1) just because its knows. It is mentioned in the /etc/ssh/ssh-config file to automatically load the RSA private key. So if you generate a key other than the names “identity” or “id_rsa” (for RSA) or “id_dsa” (for DSA). It will not be automatically loaded. You have to add the name to the ssh_config file to get automatically loaded.

Here you have to use the passphrase each time you connect the other server. It is not recommended to have the default key’s without a passphrase.

So you create the default key’s with passphrase and create some new key’s without passwords and then use those with the scripts. To use a  non default rsa key you should use the ssh-agent and ssh-add commands to create a ssh session and to load the non default private key.

Thus if you are using a ssh or scp commands in a script and you want it to run without using the password. Use

Call the script using the ssh-agent command

Test-1 @ / # ssh-agent /home/leo/script

Inside the script load the non-default private key and do the scp, sftp and ssh activities without using a password.

Inside the script

Ssh-add /home/leo/.ssh/id_non_rsa

Scp file test-2:/home/leo/

Ssh-agent in a process which binds to a shell using the SSH_AUTH_SOCK and SSH_AGENT_PID variables. Thus if you export these variables into your shell then the ssh-agent will be bind to your shell.

Rather creating a session and loading in a single script using

Inside the script

Eval `ssh-agent`    # This is create a new ssh-agent and binds it to this shell

Ssh-add /home/leo/.ssh/id_non_rsa

Scp file test-2:/home/leo/

#— Clear the SSH residues, as still the ssh-agent will be available.

#

kill -9 $SSH_AGENT_PID

SSHDIR=`dirname $SSH_AUTH_SOCK`

rm -rf $SSHDIR

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Using USB HDD with AIX

Posted by LeO on March 25, 2010

 

Using USB HDD with AIX

 

 

To use USB hdd you need to be in AIX 5.3 ML09 or have the USB filesets for ML09 installed.

 

Support for USB hdd’s are made only in AIX 5.3 ML09 thus you have to have the filesets to have your USB working properly. Else you find your USB device as a USB dvd drive, when you run a cfgmgr.

 

Once the USB is attached, do a cfgmgr and you will be able to see the device /dev/flashdrive0

 

Create the INLINE logging for the flash drive; this will change the whole drive to jfs2 file system.



mkfs
olog=3DINLINE,ea=3Dv2 -Vjfs2 /dev/flashdrive0

 

Now mount the file system onto a directory, as its using the INLINE logging both log device and the device to use are the same.  

mount -V jfs2 -o log=3D/dev/flashdrive0 /dev/flashdrive0 /mnt

 

Now you can use the USB hdd same as a file system. Here we don’t use a LVM, we have just created a file system over a disk.

 

OR

 

You can work with USB as same as a tape drive. Like taking a backup to the USB drive and restoring it.

 

Find . | backupqvif /dev/flashdrive0

 

And then for restoring do,

 

Restore –xqvf/dev/flashdrive0 .

 

I find the USB drive can handle all small files quite happily, but when the files size’s are more than 2GB its finding difficult to cope up.

 

OR

 

You can write the ISO files to the USB hdd and then mount it and use it.

 

dd if=3Dimage.iso of=3D/dev/flashdrive0 bs=3D10M

 

Here use a Block size of about 10M or 20M, if you don#8217;t mention the block size then the process will take a long time as it will use the default block size of 51200 bytes

 

 

Now once the copy is done mount the flash drive

 

mount  /dev/flashdrive0 /mnt

 

This file system is considered as a read only file system.

-LeO

Posted in Backup & Restore, Basic | 7 Comments »

AIX Security Expert (aixpert)

Posted by LeO on March 18, 2010

AIX Security Expert (aixpert)

 

One of an important activity of a system administrator is to keep the server’s secured. That includes complying health monitoring checks and other scans.

 

It would be complicated to define base line security settings for your current environment. Using base line security settings on newly created systems seems to be a difficult job for a system admin.

 

The Base line security includes

  1. User Settings
  2. Network settings
  3. Services and Daemons
  4. Root access
  5. File permissions

 

Creating a baseline security setting for the above mentioned list is a tedious work to be done and a lot of time and man power to be spent.

Rather we could now use aixpert a simple system hardening utility can be found free on AIX 5.3 ML 03 and later.

 

In this document I’m gonna go through setting up aixpert, creating a base line security for your system and gathering the proof for audit and logs for aixpert.

 

What is aixpert?

aixpert is a AIX hardening utility which help’s us secure the system and do the checks with the help of predefined scripts. aixpert can be used by using commands, smit or websm. aixpert has 300 and more AIX Standard Settings defined with four level high, medium, low or default setting.

 

Notable things in aixpert

            It can create baseline security in an xml file which can be passed to other servers and implemented there

            When we implement aixpert it will create an undo xml file by which we can go back the original settings before aixpert is implemented.

            A security check on the baseline security can be performed and identify any compromises.

 

Command:

 

aixpert

            -l sets the security level to {high|medium|low|default}

            -n the associated security level settings are written to a file(-o needs to be specified to mention the file)

            -o stores the security output to a file

            -u undo the security settings (uses undo.xml created in the core directory)

            -c checks for failed baseline security settings and write to the check_report.txt

 

What Security Setting’s to be used and when.

 

High:

            When the server is exposed to internet, incase of web server and other application servers which are connected to internet. ftp, telnet
are disabled.

Medium:

            Server connected to the internal network only without a highly secured firewall.

Low:

            Server connected to local network only and connected to the WAN with the highly secured firewall. ftp, telnet are enabled.

Default:

            This is the default settings that come with the AIX.

 

Example:

 

aixpert –l high –n –o /tmp/high_security.xml

 

Now you can edit the file /tmp/high_security.xml and remove the security settings which are not required to you environments. The security settings under the xml file will have the description and the script it will use to implement the security setting.

 

Once you have completed the editing you can consider it as a baseline security for your system.

 

Now apply the security setting to your system by

 

aixpert –f /tmp/high_security.xml

 

If you find something gone wrong, you could undo all the changes by

 

aixpert –u

 

Now to put a check every day to find the security is not compromised you can use

 

aixpert –c

 

You can find a log in the default directory /etc/security/aipert/check_report.txt which shows all the compromised security settings.

 

# cat check_report.txt

nwwkopts.sh: Network option extendednetstats’s value should be 1, but it is 0 now

chuserstanza.sh: User attribute rlogin in stanza root, should have value false, but its value is NULL now

cominetdconf.sh: Process ps is still running

Attached the document with all the possible security settings available with aixpert. AIXPert Security Settings

 

-LeO

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Backing up and compressing, restoring single file from compressed backup.

Posted by LeO on February 18, 2010

Backing up and restore is an important activity in any server adminstrators job.

Backing up using tar and backup commands are considered to be the most frequently used backup commands.

Two ways of taking backup’s, let’s talk about the both indetail.

1. Directly to the Tape.
2. Directly to the Disk.

1. Directly to the Tape

Backup
———–

Backup command is used by default to take the backups to tape. The most simple command to take backup to the tape is by using.
Note: Backups are normally taken using relative path and not using absolute path. If we backup using absolute path then the file can be restore to the absolute place, where as if we use relative path, we can restore it where ever we like. All the below example uses relative path.

find / | backup -qvif /dev/
Eg: find /tmp | backup -qvif /dev/rmt0

In the above example we are taking the backup of the /tmp directory to the tape drive rmt0.

You could also use

find /tmp | grep -v “old*” | backup -qvif /dev/rmt0

Where your ignoring all the files starts with old.

Restore
————

Restoring the whole backup or a single from from tape is easy.

Backups are normally taken using relative path rather absolute path. Thus if we used relative path then move the directory where you want to restore the files and just issue the command

restore -xvdqf /dev/rmt0

If you would like to restore a specific file then use the command.

restore -xvdqf /dev/rmt0 .//

2. Directly to the Disk

Backup
————

Normally the backups taken to the disk’s are taken using tar command and mostly the tar backups taken are been compressed. A tar command will only gather all the files and directories and put it into one file and will not compress. Thus using a compress command one the tar file will reduce the size of the backup file greatly.

for just creating a tar file of the backup, issue

tar -cvf .tar / (This is an absolute path backup)
cd /
tar -cvf .tar ./* (This is an relative path backup)

Now compressing the backup file.

compress <- This command will compress a single file.

Using it with the tar backup is simple.

tar -cvf – / | compress > .tar.Z (Absolute path backup)
cd /
tar -cvf – . | compress > .tar.Z (Relative path backup)

Eg. tar -cvf /tmp | compress > tmp.tar.Z
cd /tmp
tar -cvf . | compress > tmp.tar.Z

Restore
————

Restoring files from a backup taken to disk is as simple as that.

If relative path used to backup, then go to the directory and just extract.

cd /tmp
tar -xvf /tmp.tar

If the backup is compressed then.

cd /tmp
uncompress -c /tmp.tar.Z | tar -xvf – .

Now the best part, how to restore a single file from tar backup.

cd /tmp
tar -xvf /tmp.tar ./important.1

If its a compressed file then.

cd /tmp
uncompress -c /tmp.tar.Z | tar -xvf – ./important.1
Also you can use
zcat /tmp.tar.Z | tar -xvf – ./important.1

Just to list the backups we can use

uncompress -c /tmp.tar.Z | tar -tvf –
zcat /tmp.tar.Z | tar -tvf –

Let me know if any more information needed.

-LeO

Posted in Backup & Restore | Leave a Comment »

IBM’s new POWER 7 processor

Posted by LeO on February 13, 2010

 

IBM introduces new processor POWER7 multicore chips.  The release of the new processor set’s new expectations as the competition over the Server market increases due to take over of SUN microsystem by Oracle Corporation.

Comparison of POWER processors

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cache

 

Chip

Size

Speed in GHz

SMT thread / core

Cores

L1

L2

L3

System’s

POWER5

90-130nm, 389 mm2

1.5 – 2.2

2

2

32+32kB/core

1.875 MB/core

36 MB/chip (off chip)

p505, p510, p520, p550
p505Q, p510Q, p520Q, p550Q

POWER6

65nm, 341 mm2

3.5 – 4.7
Power 6+ – 5.0

2

8-64

64+64KB/core

4 MB/core

32 MB/chip (off chip)

p520, p550, p560, p570,
p595

POWER7

45nm, 567mm2

3.0 – 4.14

4

8-64

32+32kB/core

256 kB/core

32 MB/chip

P750, P755, p770, P780

 

The POWER7 processors are expected to run faster than the predecessor’s even though the speed of 3.0 – 4.14 GHz is lesser than that of the POWER6+ processor’s which can reach up to 5.0GHz. This is been achieved by making the 32MB L3 cache on the same chip rather than an new chip for L3 cache which is the case in both POWER5 and POWER6 processors.

The latest POWER7 processor looks to have more cores and improved multithreading capability to boost the server performance.

The server range is expected to serve any sized business, from entry to midrange to high end servers. This is the IBM’s tendency in server business.

The product pricing is listed in IBM website.

The POWER7 entry model itself costs about 34, 152 USD which is far more than compared to the POWER6 entry servers which costs only 5, 467 USD.

As far as the new processor releases are concerned, IBM really has to think about the “price” in the end.

 

-LeO

Posted in Basic | 3 Comments »

My first post…

Posted by LeO on February 12, 2010

Hi All

Welcome to my blog, this is my first post and if your looking on it then your really interested in the blog .

This is my first blog and all this blog is about IBM’s AIX Operating system.

I’m currently working with AIX for more than 5+ years and have a good knowledge over the Operating system and would like to share with whom ever interested.

Please send your suggestions and questions and i would really like to reply back.

Thanks for reading until now 😉

-LeO

Posted in Personnal | 3 Comments »